25. Manganese: Undercover Operations

From giant prehistoric sharks to clandestine Cold War projects, manganese is an element that has concealed a lot of secrets.

Featured above: A painting of the HMS Challenger by William Frederick Mitchell.

Show Notes

I’m currently traveling for the Thanksgiving holiday, so I’m light on show notes this week, unfortunately! I’m hoping to get them written up sometime this week. Thank you for your patience!

Click To Read Transcript


  1. Chemicool, Manganese Element Facts. Dr. Doug Stewart, October 7, 2012.
  2. Warwick Research, Lignin Degradation.
  3. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, History Of Oceanography.
  4. Encyclopedia.com, Deep-Sea Exploration: The HMS Challenger Expedition. 2001.
  5. Interactive Oceans, The Voyage Of The HMS Challenger.
  6. The Geological Society, Treasures Of The Abyss. Geoff Glasby.
  7. Fossil Guy, Types Of Shark Fossils.
  8. Today I Found Out, Can Sharks Really Grow An Unlimited Number Of Teeth? Karl Smallwood, April 17, 2017.
  9. USCB ScienceLine, How Many Teeth Is A Shark Supposed To Have? March 16, 2011.
  10. History.com, 7 Things You May Not Know About Howard Hughes. Elizabeth Nix, July 7, 2015.
  11. Stan Lee on Iron Man.
  12. New Scientist, Ripping Off The Ocean Bed. Technology Review, August 16, 1973.
  13. io9, That Time The CIA And Howard Hughes Tried To Steal A Soviet Submarine. Mark Strauss, April 10, 2014.
  14. Signature Reads, That Time Kissinger Kept Project Azorian From Killing U.S.-Russia Relations. Josh Dean, September 11, 2017.
  15. Popular Mechanics, 5 Things About America’s Daredevil Mission To Salvage A Soviet Nuclear Sub. Andrew Moseman, August 29, 2017.
  16. U.S. Department Of Justice, FOIA Update: OIP Guidance: Privacy “Glomarization”. January 1, 1986.
  17. Nature, Manganese The Protector. John Emsley, October 24, 2013.

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